20.09.2021, 10:40


Prof., Doctor of philosophical sciences
Ilham Mammedzadeh
Director of the Institute of Philosophy
and Sociology of ANAS

Key words: philosophy, artificial intelligence, science, ethics, logic
Artificial intelligence as a problem has become relevant in many scientific research, including in philosophy. It is clear that philosophers are interested in the question of what artificial intelligence is, how it relates to consciousness and thinking, how intelligence and artificial intelligence differ. In this case, we are interested in how its use changes philosophy, what problems are actualized and how philosophy changes as a result. In principle, artificial intelligence is everything that relates to computer systems and programs, digital technologies, processing and conclusions based on fuzzy and non-specific data, ideas of using and accumulating knowledge, learning, that is, what is called the replacement of the function of human intelligence. It must be admitted that often philosophers, reflecting on these problems, act as experts-defenders of the younger generation from the "harm caused by computers and the Internet." However, it becomes clear that this function is not enough for all philosophy, for all its importance. An analysis of these issues will allow us to identify and predict in which direction philosophy will develop and which of its functions should be paid attention to.

Philosophy of Science, Epistemology and Logic

In Azerbaijan, in philosophical research, special emphasis is placed on the history of philosophy, only a few are engaged in the philosophy of science. Such a bias must be recognized in some cases, turns the history of philosophy into a declaration, a story, a description. Only recently, in connection with the interest in logic by Lyutvi Zadeh (an American scientist of the 20th century of Azerbaijani origin), attempts to reveal the independence of the philosophy of approach to artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic have intensified, more research has begun to test knowledge for strength, falsification and verification, etc. (1) So far, philosophers often only talk more or less in detail about logic and epistemology, but do not reveal how they are used in research, which makes us rethink what role artificial intelligence plays in this. Perhaps it would be an exaggeration to say that we have succeeded in structuring a lot, in identifying connections, but some moments, in our opinion, are very interesting, since they contain the potential for development. A little more about them: firstly, in some of our studies, it was noticed that artificial intelligence as a problem has a clearly expressed philosophical and ethical aspect, that artificial intelligence, and, in particular, the fuzzy logic of Lutvi Zadeh will make it possible to deepen research in the philosophy of science, to use his logic, developments in the philosophy of science in the history of philosophy and other areas of philosophy. It is recognized that a philosophical approach to this problem involves not only identifying it, but also applying it, thinking about the consequences of its application, as well as thinking about how this will change philosophy itself. Unfortunately, we still do not think about the opportunities that he creates in the social and humanitarian disciplines, that he disciplines them, creates the conditions for the development of interdisciplinary research to test conclusions. All this is significant, since it is necessary to determine what challenges modernity poses for the natural, social sciences, whether philosophy can preserve its specificity and selfhood, having mastered in a certain sense of the word such intelligence. Secondly, this approach leads to the fact that the rest of the social sciences will be able to engage in the development of what their science should become, in other words, it actualizes the questions of the philosophy of these sciences. Presumably, this means the demand for philosophy in social and humanitarian disciplines. The use of artificial intelligence, thus, actualizes the entire context of questions about what society expects from scientists. In the end, if philosophy sets it up for them, then it again becomes in demand, they need it to a greater extent than now. Thirdly, artificial intelligence, its capabilities create conditions for understanding what is called historical memory in conditions of information abundance, how to test it using mathematics and logic, how to test it for truth, what role do socio-cultural values play in the development of science, philosophy, stories, etc. (2) The global information revolution leads to serious changes in culture, history, in what is called consciousness, national culture. (3) The question of which science can use artificial intelligence is not only a matter of survival of science. Fourthly, philosophers dealing with the problem of artificial intelligence, as a rule, have their own relations with epistemology and logic, but, apparently, special emphasis should be placed on distinguishing epistemes (M. Foucault) in philosophy and science of various periods of history, and also of the present period. Reflections about which connection, which understanding of consciousness, experience or language, is a priority in the present with us and not with us, how to conduct comparative research leads to the evidence of research in the social sciences. Fifth, some well-known Russian, including Azerbaijani philosophers divided science into various cultural and historical types, but what types of philosophy itself is divided into, what epistemes dominated in it, does it repeat science in this, and in what way it lags behind today from other sciences or surpasses them, will allow her to determine what interferes with her development. Thus, the Russian philosopher S. Lebedev distinguishes six cultural-historical types of science, considering that philosophy had the same cultural-historical types. (4) But is this so and, dissolving philosophy in science, he cannot answer the question of how, why it becomes diverse, dividing into national philosophies, and how the unity of this diversity is preserved. The questions are not speculative, especially since the concept of national philosophy has been established in our country and in many other countries. How universal philosophy and national philosophies are combined with methodological and logical pluralism, to which it leads. We need to think about these problems, as we think. Pluralism of methodologies does not mean that national philosophy should lose in scientific character and verification of its conclusions. Pluralism also does not mean a lack of methodological foundations in research and a lack of understanding of how they are used. We also note that pluralism and division of philosophies, just the same, needs constant contact between philosophers from different countries. Sixth, artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic are interconnected, but to what extent we understand and use this connection, what practical applications do these interconnections have. For example, in our opinion, it is important here how strictness is combined with tolerance and pluralism, or what are the object-subject connections, how this logic, value preferences of scientists (ideals and standards) and interdisciplinary research, or intelligence and artificial intelligence, as analysis these questions are related to logic or logics, mathematical consistency, etc. No less significant in this context are the questions of what is post-humanism, post-human, values and logic, which means the hierarchy of values and the deconstruction of humanism. You can agree or disagree with these concepts, the processes that they denote, but you need to understand them. Seventh, the analysis of philosophical literature in our country shows that in historical and cultural studies, many problems are considered in isolation from the universal philosophical discourse. The universal approaches include the problems of methodology and their application, logic and their application, although not only. You can understand why this happened, but you need to think about how to overcome it. For example, is it possible to study the heritage of Nizami, Fizuli, Nasimi without comparing it with the way the heritage is studied in philosophy, in the context of many other problems that affect creativity, biology, psychology, political time, geography, etc. Their work was not closed. In their works, they traveled through time and space. Thus, it is necessary to use the capabilities of artificial intelligence in order to overcome this isolation. Closure, by the way, has an impact not only on the accuracy of research, but also on managerial decision-making in science. Or about the problem and logic of intercultural interaction. Multiculturalism is a characteristic of society, but not a means of resolving the contradictions and problems of a multicultural society. The collapse of multiculturalism in England and Britain is the failure of a specific policy of dividing ethnic communities, and in France the policy of assimilation, we should think, what are the problems in this area in Germany and Russia, Ukraine, etc. Migration alone will not solve Russia's demographic problems , but the policy of including migrants into the community is a completely different matter. Here, apparently, we must strive for a dialogue of cultures, confessions, consultations, the adoption of certain economic and political preferences, and perhaps a policy of assimilation. In our opinion, moreover, the analysis of society does not imply only to fix what it was in the past and present, which is what many are not unsuccessfully doing. It seems that it is necessary to reflect and explain, for example, why, quite recently, the class and social characteristics of society meant much more than cultural differences, and what caused such a noticeable change that will become with them in the near and distant future. The victory in the second Karabakh war, in our opinion, also actualized the issues of logic in international relations, the use of artificial intelligence in the war. For the development of the region, we have to enter into relations with a recent adversary who has long been using the dirtiest means in his politics. These problems are now relevant for other countries as well. The 21st century has long been characterized by political and ideological heterogeneity. International organizations are losing their prestige, and on the contrary, the importance of informal platforms for dialogue of countries with different styles of government and culture is growing. Dialogue, double standards, cunning and resourcefulness in such a relationship are inevitable, as well as the use of fuzzy logic in negotiations.

On ethics and artificial intelligence

The pandemic has once again clearly demonstrated that nature, biology, man and morality are inextricably linked. However, we cannot say that they are reflected in our ethical studies and religious beliefs in the proper or at least some degree. Quarantine, as one of the forms of combating the pandemic, has shown another, let's say, multi-channel connection between ethics, culture, law and artificial intelligence. These questions were considered in our various articles, here I would only like to note that artificial intelligence, being in the object of philosophical analysis, allows ethics to master these questions holistically and conceptually, freeing from moralizing illusions, from the fact that we supposedly know that there is good and evil. Ethical problems, unlike our ideas about morality, do not have a ready-made answer, they imply a search for it, and therefore the use of concepts such as risks, probability, calculation of limits. Apparently, when we assume that in ethics it is necessary to pay attention to everything that is connected with responsibility, then this work should go along with what is called the logic of making morally significant decisions. Only then will we be able to contribute to the formation of such a type of consciousness that is capable of probabilistic judgment, capable of overcoming religious and socio-cultural prejudices regarding the assessment and attitude towards such judgments. Therefore, artificial intelligence not only supplies material that must be comprehended, but also creates an opportunity to deepen our reflections on what is human consciousness, what role does morality and reason play in its formation, what is rationality and altruism, in the end, how did good and evil appear? These questions are difficult to analyze, but if we do not analyze them, we will not be able to create an adequate understanding and forecasting of the future. Thus, culture and our life depend on philosophy and ethics no less than on the development of technology. And finally, we note that computers and the Internet allowed us to create a virtual research laboratory on philosophy, logic and artificial intelligence in our academic Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, and we hope that its results will become a condition for deepening our ideas about the future.

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