13.05.2022, 13:01

Sustainable development concept: "green economy", "smart village" and "smart city" models


Prof., Doctor of philosophical sciences Sakit Huseinov,
Head of the department of philosophy and sociology of Sustainable
development, the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of ANAS


1. "Green economy"

Scientific studies show that in the current situation, in order to move towards sustainable development, it is necessary to apply the “green economy” model. The green economy model is designed to attract the attention of scientists and international organizations as a very important tool for sustainable development. For this reason, in 2012, the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO-20) decided that most countries in the world should move to a green economy model. Of the countries that are the main initiators of the implementation of programs related to the green economy - Norway, Denmark, Australia, Israel, Germany, Spain, Japan, Sweden and others. should be specially noted.
The green economy is interpreted as a concept that ensures environmental sustainability, production and consumption, as well as investment in green development. Approaching this issue from a philosophical-sociological perspective while ensuring environmental sustainability considers socio-economic development, income growth, employment and poverty reduction.
European researchers say the green economy is closely linked to sustainable production and consumption, energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy, creating new jobs and improving people's well-being.1
It should be noted that the green economy can in fact be expressed as a new concept of economy, or as a fundamental addition of human and natural factors to the foundations of the classical economy. The emergence of the value of man and nature and the reduction of poverty to improve the well-being of the population, the effective and optimal use of limited natural resources in nature form the basis of this new economic concept (green economy).2

2. Prospects for the transition to a green economy in Azerbaijan

In order to realize the economic potential of the region on the basis of the restoration and reconstruction of our territories liberated from Armenian occupation during the post-conflict, according to methodological approaches and leading international practices to ensure sustainable development in these territories, "Concept on restoration and development of liberted territories of Azerbaijan” document has been prepared by the order of President Ilham Aliyev.
This document defines the principles of keeping the process of land restoration in the center of attention. These principles are:
- Achieving high population density upon return to rehabilitated areas;
- Adaptation of infrastructure provision to the uninterrupted logistics capabilities of the region;
- Observance of the principle of social justice and restoration of property rights during the repatriation of the population;
- Ensuring the sustainability of economic development;
- Optimizing the volume of required investments;
- Attracting private and public, as well as local and foreign investment in the recovery process in order to reduce public spending, especially the widespread use of public-private partnerships;
- The process of land reclamation is to create more demand for new production and thus stimulate the growth of the country's economy.
The above principles, in turn, envisage the development and implementation of political and economic measures, including complex programs, related to the restoration, reconstruction and sustainable development of territories.
In this regard, in order to ensure the implementation of the forthcoming issues of the Coordination Headquarters established by the Order No. 2303 of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated November 24, 2020, "State Program for Rehabilitation and Sustainable Development of the liberated territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2021-2025" was prepared.

3. “Smart village” and “Smart city” concept

It should be noted that the concepts of "Smart Village" and "Smart City" are planned to be implemented in the liberated territories of Azerbaijan. The application of "Smart Village" and "Smart City" technologies will create conditions for the development of social innovations and small business in these areas, as well as increase the attractiveness of the Karabakh region as a center of technological innovation and start-up. It should be noted that on the instructions of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, the implementation of the "Smart Village" project was launched for the first time in the Third Agali village of Zangilan region. The "Smart Village" project will be implemented mainly on 5 components. The project will cover housing, manufacturing, social services, smart agriculture and alternative energy. The energy needs of the village of 200 houses to be built will be met only from alternative energy sources. (https://president.az/articles/51295)
In general, the concepts of "smart village" and "smart city" are used in many countries around the world. These concepts will be crucial for the technological opportunities in Azerbaijan and the world as a whole, for the implementation of global innovation-oriented projects. Examining the current socio-democratic situation, it should be noted that 54% of the world's population lives in cities, and this ratio is expected to reach 66% by 2050. Measuring the growth rate of the world's population, we can estimste that almostly 2.5 billion population will move to the cities.
Taking into account the above facts, it can be said that the implementation of the "Smart Village" and "Smart City" projects in our country is inevitable. It envisages the collection of databases based on cloud technologies and the application of management forms based on their databases. Forms of governance can be in many ways. As noted, many issues can be addressed, from waste collection to the continuation of the work of municipalities and executive bodies. A green energy zone should be created within the Smart Village and Smart City projects. This means that the supply of electricity here will be more efficient, and the energy collected in energy sources will continue without power outages. One of the theoretical knowledge applied in the "Smart Village" projects is to prevent the decline. Expansion of these projects in the liberated territories will help to integrate villages into other cities and regions, to prevent the shortage of resources, in general, agricultural goods and social services.
It should be noted that the "Smart Village" and "Smart City" projects are being implemented in many countries and cities. Examples include Singapore, London, New York and Amsterdam. One of the nuances that we can see when we pay attention is that these cities can also act as tourist centers. This means that the "Smart Village" and "Smart City" projects will help to promote the beautiful corners of Karabakh in the world in the future. Today, we can proudly say that the "Smart Village" and "Smart City" projects are being implemented in Karabakh and other liberated territories, which are the prospects for sustainable development in the liberated territories.
As President Ilham Aliyev noted, the use of alternative and renewable energy sources is modern, innovative, environmentally friendly technology: "This is our vision for the future." The policy of using alternative and renewable energy sources in the country gives reason to believe that the concept of "green energy" will also have a positive impact on the implementation of the set tasks. Extensive restoration work has begun on the basis of the concept of construction of our territories destroyed as a result of the Armenian occupation, based on the most modern technologies.
Thus, large-scale projects are being implemented for the sustainable development of Karabakh in the post-44-day period. In this regard, President Ilham Aliyev has repeatedly stated that all partners and interested countries are involved in the reconstruction and restoration work in the liberated territories. There are already concrete agreements, and the interest of foreign countries in this work - or rather in the process of restoration of Karabakh - is growing. The fraternal and friendly countries, which share the joy of Azerbaijan and want to contribute to the restoration of Karabakh, also express their readiness to erase the traces of Armenian vandalism. For example, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said in his speech at the National Assembly of the Republic of Azerbaijan: “When Azerbaijanis were forced to leave Karabakh, they did not destroy anything. But they (means Armenians - S. Huseynov) destroyed everything. Azerbaijan is rebuilding the lands they destroyed. Together we will build them and create a new Karabakh. "
On the special order of President Ilham Aliyev, projects on the reconstruction of infrastructure have been launched within the Strategic Action Plan to restore the liberated territories. Rehabilitation and construction of road and electricity infrastructure have already become widespread in all seven districts, as well as in the liberated areas of Hadrut and the former Aghdara district. Specific instructions were given on the implementation of projects aimed at the restoration and reconstruction of regional centers and villages. The restoration program also clarified the issues of unification of small villages, construction of residential areas, construction of social facilities and service areas in all liberated regions.
The principles set for the restoration and settlement of the territories by the order of President Ilham Aliyev were discussed, the distribution and schedule of work to be carried out in different regions were agreed with the relevant agencies and specific instructions were given for their implementation. One of the most discussed issues related to the restoration of territories - the criteria and principles of merging small villages are already known.
In the process of starting the restoration and reconstruction of our territories, first the brotherly Turkish companies, and then the Italian companies began to operate. Turkish companies are mainly working on road construction and business establishment, while Italian companies are working on the reconstruction of electricity infrastructure.
It should be noted that companies from different countries want to join the restoration of our liberated territories. In this regard, Russia, Italy, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and others. Companies from other countries have appealed to the Azerbaijani government to participate in the process of restoration and reconstruction in the liberated territories, and companies from some countries have begun talks with relevant agencies and companies of the country. Speaking at the annual general discussion of the 76th session of the UN General Assembly on September 24, 2021, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev spoke about the situation in the South Caucasus after the 44-day war: Since the end of the conflict, Azerbaijan has already stated its readiness to start negotiations with Armenia on a peace agreement based on the principles of delimitation and demarcation of borders, mutual recognition of each other's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Such an agreement can turn our region into a region of peace and cooperation. However, we have not yet seen a positive reaction from Armenia to our proposal. One of the areas that serve peace and cooperation may be transport projects. In this context, the Zangazur corridor, which will connect the main part of Azerbaijan with the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and Turkey, will create new opportunities for our region. Azerbaijan has created new realities in the South Caucasus region, and everyone should take this into account. Armenia must choose between regional cooperation and illegal and unfounded territorial claims against its neighbors. The international community must play a positive role in this regard and call on Armenia to realize that there is no alternative to peace. Attempts to directly or indirectly support revanchism and its armament in Armenia must be stopped. ”
In short, the restoration of Azerbaijan's territorial integrity has opened up new opportunities for our country, which is carrying out restoration work. Our people, together with brotherly and friendly countries, will successfully complete this important mission.

List of References
1. Daly, H. and Farley, J. 2004. Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Washington: Island Press.
2. Finn, Donovan (2009). Our Uncertain Future: Can Good Planning Create Sustainable Communities?.Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois.
3. https://president.az/articles/49876
4. https://president.az/articles/51295
5. https://xalqqazeti.com/az/news/78552
6. https://xalqqazeti.com/mobile/az/news/63717
7. Lynn R. Kahle, EdaGurel-Atay, Eds (2014). Communicating Sustainability for the Green Economy. New York: M.E. Sharpe
8. Scott Cato M. (2009). Green Economics. London.
9. dovletinfo.az
10.https://president.az/articles/53197
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