28.10.2020, 13:48

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL POLICY


Günel Məlikli
AMEA-nın YAP İdarə Heyətinin üzvü, Fəlsəfə və Sosiologiya İnstitutunun şöbə müdiri, siyasi elmlər üzrə fəlsəfə doktoru


Policy is an ancient Greek word (polis, politicos) and reflects mutual relations between state and citizen in itself. Generally policy indicates itself in a political life of state and society. As a result of political activity political relations is in progress in society’s life, political connections are formed in different spheres of society.
Political science helps to study logic of public development profoundly; enlighten about political life, bases of international policy and state system.
Generally activity field of political science is large. It has several purposes and it plays an important role in formation and governing of society.
Main purpose of political science – is to make people civilized persons from political point of view. [1 p. 151]
Political science is purely related with political activity. Social groups defend their own interests, try to realize their social interests by political activity. One of main streams of political activity is social policy.
We know that, term of “Social policy” has been relatively created recently and it is not worth searching analogue of it in ancient period, Middle Ages or other historical memorials. In modern social theory viewing it as a direction of social policy is an attributive feature of XX century.
It should be noted that, an attitude of existing political consciousness to public life events caused creation of thoughts about social-political processes. When we are speaking about social policy, first of all we should look at history about ideas of social policy.
Despite the fact that, social policy is relatively novel (as a part of social theory and also as a social advantage – internal policy of state) main concepts of social policy have been founded for hundred years.
In ancient time social-political teaching was created in Babylonia, India, Egypt, China in the East and other countries.
In the IV-III millennium BC political events in Egypt were interpreted like God’s will. First slavery states were founded there and inequality of different classes dominated in political ideology and social- political sphere.
Slavery system was developed and political ideology was directed to religious concepts in Babylonia.
A source of social-political ideas were Buddhism and Brahmanism ideology in India. Social-political ideas of Brahanism were in “Manu rules” in the second century BC. Main ideology of Brahmanism was based on that Varnas had been sent by God like rules and they were controlled by these rules. And it is stressed strongly in “Manu rule” that keeping influence of Varna’s high class is an important condition to defend existing state system. Buddhism current was created by Gautama in the V-VI century BC. Main view of Buddhism was freedom of people.
In the IV-III century BC political thought was widely spread in Ancient China. Daosism doctrine had been formed in “Daodo tiszin” book and this doctrine was followed with passive objection of the poor.
Generally speaking there are many contradictions in an Ancient China’s social-political doctrines. So that influential classes interests were protected in Confutsi doctrine that was founded in 551-479 year but at the same time MO-tiszi doctrine was protecting interests of poor class.
In Ancient Greek social-political ideas were formed in different directions too. In the IV century BC Demosfen made idea of social justice, and stressed that it is necessary to run a state according to justice principles.
He said in his doctrine that first of all it was important to make laws to run a state according to the principles. At the second part of the V century BC there was made sophists’ doctrines that consisted of law and politics, morality, oratory in Greece.
For Sophists the first thing in politics was wisdom.
Another representative of Ancient Greece’s social-political thought Aristotle (BC 384-322) said that state, government and other social events were created as results of objective laws of nature. According to Aristotle’s teaching slavery is a main reason of creation inequality in society. His social-political theories were interpreted in his book named “Politics”. Aristotle’s social concept defends interests of privileged classes, and justifies power of the rich.
Another Greek thinker Platoon (428-427 BC – 348-347 BC) made doctrines about ideal state in his works named “State” and “Law” and showed real description of political evolution. According to Platoon state must be ruled by “philosophers” and must be protected by “guard group” or “fighters” and “skillful masters” should stay beneath of these two free citizens’ class.
There were quite enough similarity between social-political doctrines of ancient Rome and Antique Greece. Originality in the world outlook of the Romans was their thoughts about relationships of mature slavery society.
Seneka, Mark Avreli, philosopher Lukretsi Kar, ideologist of aristocracy M. Siseron are considered as followers of Greek stoiks in Rome. Siseron said that all people were equal by nature and it was important to stand in high level of every person who was educated. According his thought social differences were formed not by nature but by relationships that were formed in society. Another Romanic thinker Epiktet was against wealth and property and called them power of evil.
According to one of representatives of ancient Eastern social-political idea Azerbaijanian poet of Khagani’s thought (1126-1199) a perfect state can not be gained by force it can be gained only by justice.
Nizami Ganjavi (1141-1209) defended humanism in his ideas, and expressed these principles in his works. Also Bahmanyar (1066) in his social-political views were against injustice, poverty of people and wanted these problems to be lifted. M. Shabustari (1287) thought that main condition of society’s development is existing fair rules and laws.
Later social-political problemacy was discussed in T. Mor’s and T. Komponella’s utopias. In scientifical works which were dedicated to public agreement theories were spoken matters about social policy which considered as main directions of internal affairs of state.
In XVI-XVII century there happened big social-political changes in Europe.
Utopical socialists T. Mor (1478-1535) and T. Kampanella (1568-1639) thought that for development of society, and ideal social-political stability in society could be achieved by abolition of private property.
According to English philosopher T. Hobbsun (1588-1639) for welfare of nation a person in power should have unlimited rights in law adoption, and tax collection. Dutch thinkers H.Gotsi (1583-1645) and B. Spinoza (1632-1677) thought that when there had not been state there was not regulated relations between people, as mankind improved, people came to an agreement and made a state.
Karl Marks and his followers specially stressed social problemacy matter in their works. Gradually this subject turned from social welfare provision into the egalitarian program [2.p.123]
At the end of the XIX and in the beginning of the XX century there already were new directions in social-political history. At this period of time socialist, social-democratic ideology were dominating.
Social-political and literary thoughts stepped in to a new level in Azerbaijan as well. M.A.Sabir, J.Mammadguluzade, N.Narimanov, M.A.Rasulzade and others were notable persons of social-political ideas at that time. Social justice and equality were their main ideas in their social views.
French philosophers of the XVIII century like L.Monteskye, M.Volter, D.Didro, R.Golbagh, J.Lametri, J.J.Russo and others improved important social ideas about power partition, made state by public agreement, property liberty as common rights and about security rights, freedom of speech and thought and conscience and also about unlimited sovereignty of nations.
Main directions of socialist ideology started improving in the beginning of the XX century. In the second part of the XX century as a result of socialist parties’ activity Marxism ideology started to be spread like a doctrine. During this period there started forming different models of social policy. One of these models was communist model. This model of social policy is used in socialist countries where Marxism ideology is in power.
Provision of society’s needs by state, giving pensions and realizing process of these kind of social defense are one of main features of social policy’s communist model. Another social policy model is a liberal model which main feature is to determine social defense according to each citizen’s income, and employment of salary individually in market economy.
Generally speaking at the end of the XIX century and in the beginning of the XX century these kinds of social-democratic ideas started spreading widely. In 1899 year eminent representative of German social-democrats’ Eduard Bernshteyn spoke about these ideas in his book called “Background of socialism and responsibilities of social democracy”.
But representative of Neokantism Rudolf Shtamler noted in his ideas that objective law of social life is to be understood of mankind and following them. Generally social-policy thought of the world has had great development way.
In 1970s more critisism approach started against social policy and this approach ended with successes of social theory.
Social policy idea has had two different conceptions and one of them is the name of academic discipline and another one is expressed for society’s regulations to provide public welfare.
Generally social policy is realized in different fields and the fields are very huge. As research scientists who are studying these fields approach these fields formation from different point of views these fields are different from each other.
In one word the scientists approach social policy from different views to study these fields. Scientist V.M. Kapitsiya who researched social policy conception stressed several fields of social policy as important tasks.
He entered to these tasks health and compulsory medical insurance, education, flat policy, defense of the old and invalids and etc. In general social policy process is implemented with human factor and directly is realized for provision citizen’s social development and their defense. In 1990 within the frame of the UN’s Development Program published “Report about human development” on a base of health, education and other issues.
The first and main aim of social policy is to increase welfare of society and socialization of welfare. Positive development in solution of public problems which make actual of social policy subjects are main aim of social policy. For example decreasing of unemployment and poverty and every positive changes in joining citizens to public life are undeniable purposes of social policy.
Nowadays achieving to social stability and keeping it safe is main purpose in realization of social policy.
Existence of systematic relations between different political subjects, some completeness of this and ability of realization its responsibilities efficiently are considered main features of social stability conception.
Political stability is divided into two parts like an internal and international-political stability. Related with subjects that enter political systems are defined as a specific character of these systems.

ƏDƏBİYYAT SİYAHISI
1. Куликов Л. М. Основы социологии и политологии: Учеб. Пособие. –Финансы и статистика, 2005, 336 с.
2. Смирнов С. Н., Т. Ю. Сидорина Социальная политика издательский дом ГУ ВЩЭ, Москва 2004, 430 с.
3. Бабосов Е. М.Общая социология: Учеб. пособие для студентов вузов./ «ТетраСистемс», 2004. -640 с.
4. Джерри Д., Джулия Д.. Большой Толковый Социологический словарь издание на русском языке, оформление издатества «Вече», 2001 527 стр.
5. Ersöz H. Y. Sosyal politikada yerelleşme İstanbul 2011 226 s.
6. Bedir E. , Yusuf Alper, Aysen Tokol, Mehmet Merve Özaydın, Banu Metin Sosyal politika, Anadolu universitesi

ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ.
РЕЗЮМЕ

Слово политика произошло от древнегреческого слова «полис, политикос» и означает взаимоотношение между государством и гражданами. В общем, политика отражается в политической жизни государства и общества. Наука политология связана с политической деятельностью. В политической деятельности различные социальные группы защищают свои интересы и пытаются реализовать их для достижения своих целей. Одним из основных направлений политической деятельности является социальная политика. Говоря о социальной политике, прежде всего, следует обратить внимание на историю идеи социальной политики. В современном мире основной целью реализации социальной политики является достижение социальной стабильности и ее сохранение. Существование системных взаимоотношений между различными политическими субъектами, определенной целостности и умения эффективной реализации соответствующих возложенных обязательств характеризируют социальную стабильность.


Tədqiqatçı. Elmi-praktiki jurnal, III cild, №1, . ISSN 2409-4838.